The Medieval Theory of the Humors

by Prof. Francis R. Johnson, adapted by Alfred J. Drake

Element: fire

Humor: hot and dry

Qualities: choler (yellow bile)

Complexion: choleric (irascible, passionate, bilious)

Zodiac Signs: Aries, Leo, Sagittarius

Corresponding Planet: Mars (the lesser evil)

Element: earth

Humor: cold and dry

Qualities: melancholy (black bile)

Complexion: melancholic (sullen, dejected, bad-tempered

Zodiac Signs: Taurus, Virgo, Capricornus

Corresponding Planet: Saturn (the greater evil)

Element: air

Humor: hot and moist

Qualities: blood

Complexion: sanguine (ardent, cheerful, venereal, liberal)

Zodiac Signs: Gemini, Libra, Aquarius

Corresponding Planet: Jupiter (the greater fortune)

Element: water

Humor: cold and moist

Qualities: phlegm

Complexion: phlegmatic (cold, dull, apathetic, cool, calm)

Zodiac Signs: Cancer, Scorpio, Pisces

Corresponding Planet: Venus (the lesser fortune)